Sperm is a male reproductive gamete and swims in a fluid called semen. In the sperm donation process, sperm donor donates his semen sample after following self-ejaculation. Sperm donation helps single women or a couple who unable to conceive due to the absence of a male partner or male fertility issues. Sperm Banks are service centers that collect and store donated sperm and deliver to the reproductive clinic to proceed with fertility treatment. Therefore, sperm donation is the procedure through which a health man donates his semen to help others to build their family. Sperm donation is useful for the following indications:
- The male partner has oligospermia, azoospermia, or other disease conditions related to seminal fluid or sperm abnormalities.
- The male partner has the ejaculatory disorder.
- Previous history of in vitro fertilization (IVF) with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) failure or not recommended due to unfeasibility.
- Possible other assisted reproductive technologies including zygote intrafallopian transfer, gamete intrafallopian transfer have due to significant male factor infertility.
- A couple does not undergo any physical invasive procedure.
- The male partner has a genetic disorder or carrier of the genetic disorder which is hereditarily transferable confirmed through previous pregnancy outcome.
- Male partner suffering from a severe sexually transmissible infection.
- The male partner is an AIDS patient.
- The blood group of the female partner is Rh-negative and severely Rh-is immunized, whereas the male partner carries Rh-positive blood.
- Females without have their male partner but want to enjoy motherhood.
Basic Requirements for Sperm donation
Men having any ethnicity and background can donate their sperm. But should be eligible following basic criteria to starts the clinical sperm donation procedure.
- The usual age bar for sperm donation is restricted between 19 years to 39 years.
- Physically fit and usually, preferred height is at least 5 feet 7 inches with sufficient muscular build.
- Pursuing or completed graduation program.
- Able to visit the clinic once in a week during business hours after starting clinical procedures.
- No criminal history.
- Living a healthy lifestyle.
- No known family disease history.
If all the above-mentioned criteria are fulfilled, then the donor screening process is started. To start the process, interested sperm donors need to fill up the application form to start the screening and testing phase. The medical history of the donor and his family medical history thoroughly review. Some sperm banks ask for personal narrative along with childhood photos. Health workers take multiple interviews to check your lifestyle. During the screening and testing phase, the donor needs to visit the sperm bank.
Sperm donation Procedure
Both known and anonymous sperm donation is possible. Sperm donors donate their freshly collected sperm in the sperm bank after collecting the semen sample in a sterile cup through masturbation in a private room. Before, giving the sample, the donor needs to follow 3 days abstain from ejaculation.
The collected sample is cryopreserved (frozen) for at least six months. Then the donor is thoroughly tested for STD, genetic diseases If all the test results are negative, then the collected frozen semen sample is thawed for evaluating sperm quantity, quality, and movement. If the sperm sample meets the quality standards, then the donor is selected.
The donor can give samples once a week. The donor needs to sign a contract and legal agreement to avoid any future legal issues before start donating his sperm. But in case of any test result shows positive, sperm bank informs the candidate and refer to treatment and/or counseling.
After sperm donation
The donated sperm sample will be inserted into a woman's reproductive organs through the intrauterine insemination or used in IVF treatment for the artificial fertilization of mature eggs.