Frozen embryo and embryo donation become a current trend to solve fertility issues. Embryos are the fertilized egg waiting for the possibility of life. There are lots of medical and environmental factors responsible for the barrier of the normal fertilization process. Couples who are facing this problem often opt In-vitro fertilization (IVF) or other assisted reproductive technologies (ART). IVF or other ART involves artificially fertilization. The success of IVF depends upon the optimal environment of the culture system where embryos develop. After the development of embryos, some of these fresh embryos are implanted in mother's womb for conversion of the fetus to continue the fertility treatment. The surplus embryo cryopreserved for future use. The couples can be donated surplus embryos to other infertile couples or who wish to become intended single parent. Surplus cryopreserved or frozen embryos will not be used after the completion of their family. The surplus embryo can also be donated for further medical research purpose and contribute to the advancement of medical science. Therefore, frozen embryos are considered as an enormously valuable and inimitable resource.
The reproductive ability diminishes with increasing of age or due to some medical condition. Nowadays, many biological parents cryopreserve their embryos to widen the future option to complete their family. When couples decided their completion of family, then frozen embryos become surplus. The estimated surplus frozen embryos are almost 7 million to 10 million in the United States. One of the right utility of the surplus frozen embryos is embryo donation. Both biological parents and intended parents get benefit from embryo donation. A single surplus frozen embryo can be donated. Aging of frozen embryos is not a matter of consideration. Healthy frozen embryos can be used even after 20 years. The refrozen process is possible for unused thawed frozen embryos and these refrozen embryos can again thaw for another implantation process. Expert medical practice preserves the life birth ability of frozen and refrozen embryo, whereas manhandling can destroy them.
Embryo donation is considered a noble effort, as this provides the opportunity to other infertile couples to become parents by using surplus frozen embryos. A study conducted in 2007 showed that the possibility of achieving pregnancy after using own frozen embryo is 32%, but surprisingly this scope raises up to 35% in case of adopting the donated frozen embryos. The frozen embryo donation is not required to pay any cost for adoption purpose.
The embryo cannot be brought or sold, only embryo donation is the option to get a surplus frozen embryo. Embryo adoption is an affordable option for an infertile couple to become intended parents. It is less expensive than domestic or international adoption. However, there are many bioethical areas including legal, medical and social work require to accomplish before embryo donation and embryo adoption process. Several agencies provide the services required to proceed embryo donation and adoption process, including matching of donor and adaptor requirements, legal works, shipment of frozen embryos etc. Experts usually recommended maximum three frozen embryos implantation in a single embryo transfer cycle.