IVF or in-vitro-fertilization is one of the common fertility treatment comes under the umbrella of Assisted reproductive technology. It is safe and effective to the verity of fertility problems, which unable to solve through conventional medication and surgical intervention or other ARTs. In most of the cases after the IVF procedure, women can recommence their normal activities in the following day. But IVF also has some risk factor, which may be related to medications recommended during IVF cycle or procedure-related risks.
Some of the common side effects of IVF procedure, including mild cramping, a small amount of vaginal discharge of clear or bloody fluid after completion of the procedure, constipation, mild bloating, tenderness of breast have often reported. However, these are mild side-effects usually subsided by their own. It is also necessary to mention all the mentioned side effects may not appear in every case. The patient may experience a few or all of them.
However, the patient needs to immediately contact to the doctor and seek for medical help in the following cases, which includes vaginal heavy bleeding, pain in pelvic, haematuria (blood in urine), high fever (body temperature rise over 100.5 °F).
Medication administered for overstimulation of ovaries may cause headache, mood swings, abdominal pain, hot flashes, abdominal bloating and in rare cases ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. The ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome-related symptoms are ovarian tenderness, decreased the frequency of urination, abrupt unexplained weight gain, moderate to severe abdominal pain, bloating, vomiting, diarrhea, breathing difficulty, unconsciousness, a significant increase of waist size.
Appearing of these symptoms also need immediate medical attention to control complications.
The risk associated with IVF procedure also considerable and these are as follows:
• The process of egg retrieval often increase the risk of infection, bleeding, and bladder or bowel damage.
• The risk of multiple pregnancies is higher with multiple embryo transfers and can cause premature delivery, low birth weight.
• The risk of miscarriage in case of increasing maternal age.
• Experts have acknowledged the risk of 2-5% of IVF associated ectopic pregnancy. In an ectopic pregnancy, the fertilized egg has implanted outside the uterus and this practice is not feasible for a successful pregnancy.
• The intended parents have physical, emotional and financial stress during the IVF procedure. Failure of the IVF cycle often causes psychological depression and emotional problems in couples.
• Usually, the expense of IVF is not included in the coverage of many insurance policies, whereas each IVF cycle is an expensive venture.
• The scope of congenital birth defects related to IVF is not yet justified through well research statistical data. However, a combination of IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) increase the risk of birth defects, especially sex chromosomal abnormality. However, it is doubtful that such risks are related to ICSI procedure itself or due to sperm abnormality.