Egg donation is done by a lady usually not facing any long-term complications. However, some short-term risks and related complications are often common in a lady who donates her eggs. It is always better to know the egg donation-associated complications before starting the procedure to avoid drastically impact on the physical and mental health of the egg donor. Following are some common complications that may occur due to egg donation:
The egg donor may become pregnant if she has unprotected sexual intercourse during the egg donation cycle. The egg donor needs to stop all of her contraception processes during the cycle to produce multiple eggs. The pregnancy can occur because some eggs are released before retrieval or in the case of some mature eggs remain after the egg retrieval process. Pregnancy during this phase often has a risk of multifoetal pregnancy because of chances of more than one egg left behind.
Therefore, a woman who wants to donate her eggs must evade intercourse or use an effective contraceptive barrier. Mostly, a woman who wants to enroll herself in an egg donation process needs to take stimulation medications that are the same as given in the fertility treatment to increase the production of eggs. In case of residual eggs remain in the ovaries that increase the chance to become pregnant after unprotected sexual intercourse.
Temporary weight gain
A woman who donates her egg usually increases 3 to 5 pounds weight during the cycle because of enhanced womb size and fluid retention. But the woman again back to her previous body weight after appearing her first menstruation cycle and the completion of her egg donation cycle.
Side effects of the medications
Hormonal therapy is often given to the egg donor to stimulate multiple egg production in the ovaries. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and Luteinizing hormone (LH) are normally released from the pituitary gland present in the brain that activates ovaries to produce eggs. But in the egg donation process, these two hormones are included as hormonal therapy. A woman who takes hormonal therapy usually experiences bloating and abdominal cramps because of ovarian response. The doctor usually prescribes some medicine to overcome these side effects. But immediate medical attention requires in case of severe symptoms that may occur due to ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS).
Hormonal therapy is usually injectable medications that are given with a birth control pill. These medications often cause premenstrual syndrome (PMS) like symptoms as a side effect. Vaginal dryness, hot flashes, sleep disturbance, fatigue, body aches, mood swings, breast tenderness, headache, slight bloating, etc. are some common side effects of these medications.
Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS)
Very rare instance, some women who donate their eggs have hypersensitivity to the stimulation medications. Exaggerated ovarian inflammation and retention of fluid in abdomen and chest cavity lead to OHSS and untreated condition exerts serious illness. Approximately 5% of egg donors experience OHSS.
Mild abdominal pain, swelling, and pressure associated with treatment must rid of after the arrival of the next menstruation cycle. In case of these symptoms appear in moderate intensity require careful monitoring, bed rest, and pain medications. But rarely, OHSS may become severe and can cause serious health complications like blood clots, fluid accumulation in the lungs, kidney failure, and shock. In such cases, immediate hospitalization requires to manage the condition.
Egg donors should contact the clinic as early as possible if they experience abdominal discomfort, nausea, vomiting, headache, and weight gain. In the clinic, doctors closely monitor the patient and recommend treatment as needed.
Bleeding and infections
Bleeding may occur during the egg retrieval process because of the insertion of a needle into the ovary. Rarely this procedure can rapture nearby blood vessels, puncture or damage the bladder or bowel. Spotting is a common event after egg retrieval, but if an egg donor experiences heavy bleeding, then immediately need to contact the clinic.
The doctor prescribes intravenous antibiotic treatment to prevent infection. Egg donor needs to revisit the clinic after two weeks of the egg retrieval process for a check-up.