The invention of IVF is the basis of opening of the egg donation service. In IVF, the hormonal therapy is injected to hyperstimulate the ovaries and multiple eggs are removed, which then fertilize externally before uterine implantation. But, when hyperstimulation unable to stimulate ovary for certain women or insufficient egg retrieval or poor egg quality incapable for external fertilization, then the egg donation door open up.
Egg donation is the solution for both lacks of ovarian function and complete loss of ovarian function. Women with autoimmunity, insensitive ovary or gonadal dysgenesis usually cause lack of ovarian function. Whereas, complete loss of ovarian function can occur due to premature menopause, exposure to radiotherapy, or chemotherapy or surgical intervention.
Taking help from egg donation service is not always backed by definite medical reason. But it is a solution for women who have normal ovarian functioning, but unable to conceive by regular intercourse and IVF also not successful due to ovarian inaccessibility due to anatomical disorder and even patient condition does not support surgical egg harvesting. In some cases, unexplainable IVF failure without apparent abnormality of the collected gametes also requires egg donation service.
In certain cases, women have a regular menstrual cycle, but act as a carrier of autosomal dominant genetic transmission or sex-linked genetic disorders, in such cases, egg donation prefers to avoid the health risk of offspring. Both the partners of a couple are a carrier of autosomal recessive traits, egg donation is blessings for such couples.
However, recipients also need to take estrogen and progesterone hormonal therapy to prepare endometrium bed for receiving the created embryo and maintain the pregnancy. Recipients who have a normal ovarian function also under medical supervision to synchronize the egg retrieval, fertilization with the recipient's cycle.
Egg donation also medically conducted for uterine lavage and transferring method. However, this is not a regular practice, as this technique has a risk in pregnancy. Apart from this, gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) is another method, where egg donation technique is also utilized. There is no in-vitro-fertilization or embryo transfer followed in GIFT process. In this process donated eggs and partner's sperm directly inserted into the fallopian tube through laparoscopic surgery for the natural fertilization process. This process is recommended when the recipient has normal reproductive functioning with ovarian insufficiency and the success rate is good enough. But usually, patients do not accept this technique due to surgical intervention.
The egg donation program is available in many countries across the globe. The stringent medical screening technique is followed to recruit egg donor. The pregnancy-associated with egg donation program gives healthy baby birth with IVF, uterine lavage and GIFT methods. However, the live birth rate is a little less than expected. Medical research is continuing to achieve more success in the egg donation program.